Online marketing definities

Marketingtermen en online marketing begrippen die veel worden gebruikt in het vakgebied en op deze website.

Klik op een onderstaande letter waarmee het begrip begint om de definitie en uitleg hierbij te lezen.


Ad audience: The number of unique users exposed to an ad within a specified time period.
Ad banner: Ad banners (also known as banner ads) are one of the most dominant forms of advertising on the internet. Banner ads are a form of display advertising that can range from a static graphic to full motion video or rich media. The iab frequently updates their ad guidelines in order to assist creators and buyers of banner ads. Compared to offline forms of display advertising, banner ads allow for several enhanced types of targeting. Including geo-targeting, dayparting, and various types of behavioral targeting.
Ad blocker: Software on a user’s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed.
Ad click: The user activity of pressing a navigation button or hitting the enter key on the keyboard on an advertisement unit on a web site (banner, button or text link).
Ad Exchange: The platform on which impressions from publishers are connected with advertisers’ campaigns. The platform makes online bidding and selling of media possible.
Ad Extensions: An AdWords feature that shows additional information in your ads such as your business’ location, phone number, business ratings, and links to your webpage. Manual Extensions: App Extension Call Extension, Location Extension Review Extension Sitelinks Extension Callout Extension.

Ad fraud: is any attempt to defraud digital advertising networks for financial gain. Scammers often use bots to carry out ad fraud, but not always – there are a number of methods that scammers can use to trick advertisers and ad networks into paying them.  

Ad Group: The structure that contains one or more ads and a target set of keywords for Google Search, and a target set of placements for Google Display.

Ad Network;  A business that sells ad space on behalf of multiple publishers.

Ad Rank: The formula Google created to determine your ad’s position in the search results. [Formula] Ad Rank = Your Max CPC Bid x Your Quality Score. Sitelinks and use of other extensions are also factored into this equation
Ad Relevance: An indicator that lets Google know how closely related your keywords are to your ads and website landing page. Google’s Quality Score values Ad Relevance above anything else. Make sure your keyword is featured in your ad text and is somewhere on your website landing page to increase Ad relevance and thus Quality score.
Ad server: is a Web server that stores advertising content used in online marketing and delivers that content onto various digital platforms such as Websites, social media outlets and mobile apps. An ad server is merely the technology in which the advertising material is stored and is the means of distributing that material into appropriate advertising slots online.

Adserving: The act of calling ads from a centralised server (the ad server) and delivering them to a user’s web browser.
Agency Trading Desk: This is the part of a media agency responsible for and specialised in the buying of media via a DSP, and where impressions and audiences are optimised by making use of automated trading. Trading Desks not linked to an agency are called Independent Trading Desks.
Audience Segments: Refers to the grouping or segmenting of audiences beyond standard demographics such as age, gender and income. For example, audiences can be segmented by:
• Location (e.g. postcode, proximity to a store)
• Behaviour (e.g. fashionista)
• Attitude (e.g. early technology adopter)
• Intention (e.g. travel intender)
• Ownership (e.g. dog owner)
• Lifestyle (e.g. gym junkie)
Ad tag: An ad tag is a snippet of code on a website that communicates with ad servers to make the correct digital ad appears on a web page or in an app.
Ad Tracking: Ad tracking refers to a method for recording campaign delivery metrics between ad servers
Ad Trafficking: The process for setting up ads in the ad server so that when an ad request is made to the ad server, the ad is delivered to the publisher.

Ad Verification: Ad verification is a service that offers technology to ensure that ads appear on intended sites and reach the targeted audience.

Ad Words API: The piece of technology that lets advanced AdWords users build software applications to interact with and make changes to their campaigns. To use the AdWords API, you will need a My Client Center account and a developer token. API stands for Application Program Interface
Analytics: A free tool Google created to help you better understand the types of customers that visit your website, how much time they spend there, where they come from, and other important metrics that AdWords cannot provide in as much detail.

Ad request: As soon as the player starts showing video content, an ad request (or ad call) is made to the ad server. This request contains information about the content, the serving location and possibly the viewer. Based on this information, the ad server determines which ad fits the targeting options and can be selected. 

Ads.txt: Stands for Authorized Digital Sellers was introduced several years ago to create a more transparent and secure programmatic ecosystem. Ads.txt is a simple, flexible and secure way for publishers to let buyers know if they are authorized to sell the inventory they are offering in an easy and publicly accessible way.

Audible and visible on complete (AVOC): is a measurement of the percentage of impressions where the ad was visible and audible on completion and delivered to a human.

Audience Exclusion: Creating a group of users that we don’t want to target. We are creating this audience to exclude them from targeting. 

Audience Segmentation: Audience Segmentation is the process of dividing a group of users into subgroups using specific characteristics such as product usage, intent, demographic, life stage and more.

Automatic Bidding: The bidding strategy that lets Google automatically adjust your maximum bids across keywords. This is a good option for advertisers that are willing to give up a little control to free up some time.

Attribution: Assigns credit to touchpoints across channels based on their contribution to an action. 
Awareness: A stage in the purchase funnel where users are not aware of an advertisers brand or product.

Advertising video on demand (AVOD): uses an advertising-based revenue model. This allows companies that advertise on broadcast and cable channels to reach people who watch shows using VOD.



Bid Floor / Price Floor: The minimum bid a publisher is willing to accept for an impression it is selling.
Bid request: If an SSP is connected, a bid request will be made along with the ad request. A bid request is simply a request from the SSP to the different DSPs to show an ad. The bid request is a piece of script that contains information about the website making the request. Besides the website, the URL and the format of the video, the bid request contains a bid floor, the minimum CPM an advertiser has to bid in order to be eligible to win the auction. Also, the bid request contains a unique code that the SSP uses to identify the site when it contacts the DSPs. This code, the Deal ID, allows each party to know what is being bid on.
Bitrate: represents the number of bits per unit time and is used to indicate the quality of the ad or video. By default, this is indicated by bits per second (bit/s). The bit rate can vary across the entire video, for example, because it contains fewer colors or because the quality of the video is not the same everywhere. In general, the following applies here: the higher the bit rate, the better the quality. Because not every combination of device and internet connection can handle all bitrates equally well, it is wise to have several renditions (versions of the spot) available varying in bitrate, with a minimum size of 1500 kbps. 
Blacklist: This is a list of blocked items, terms or URLs to be used when an advertising campaign is delivered
Bounce Rate: The rate of visitors to your website who leave without visiting more than 1 page of your site.
Brand Campaign: A campaign in which an advertiser is looking to engage customers to enhance the market awareness or understanding of their brand/product. 
Brand Safety: Brand safety is defined as keeping a brand’s reputation safe when they advertise online. In practice, this means avoiding placing ads next to inappropriate content.
Brand suitability: is based on perception. It is customized media buying that ensures that the surrounding content matches the image and customer base of the brand. 
Broad Match: The keyword setting that allows your ads to be triggered when any type of similar variation, synonym, or phrase is searched. It will have the largest reach (impressions) compared to all other match types but will be far less targeted.
Broad Match Modifier: The keyword setting that will give you reach (impressions) similar to broad match keywords, but also give you more control over who you are serving your ads to. They tell Google certain words in your keywords phrase need to be present in the search term of your customers. Broad match keywords are indicated by a ‘+’ sign.
Bumper ad: An ad (with a duration of up to 6 seconds) played in the player, preceding the video content. 


Callout Extensions: Additional text that appears with your ad that calls out some piece of value for your customer. Basic examples of Callouts include: 24/7 Support, Free Shipping, and Cancel Anytime.

Campaign Brief: A campaign brief is usually produced by an advertiser to allow their partners to understand what the high-level objectives of a campaign are, ahead of a campaign plan being produced. 

Clickthrough Rate (CTR): The percent of people that click on your ad after viewing it. The formula to determine your CTR is the total number of clicks divided by the total number of impressions.

Client-side header bidding: Client-side header bidding involves adding a piece of JavaScript to a publisher’s website in between the tags. The code then executes each time a page loads, and sends an ad request(s) to a number of demand partners.

Contective Targeting: Showing ads on a similar topic as the product-service. 

Contextual targeting:  A programmatic targeting tactic which look to place ads on web pages with particular contexts that are relevant for a given advertiser/product.

Controlled Experiments: Randomly assigns a group of people to test and control groups to quantify the impact of a change. 

Conversion: A stage in the purchase funnel where users have interacted with a brand or are very likely to be in market to purchase.

Conversion Rate: The average number of conversions you will see per click on your ad.

Conversion Tracking: The method of tracking the important actions your customers make (sales, sign-ups, etc.) that come as a result of Google AdWords ads.

Cookies: This is a message containing information about a user that is sent by a web server to a browser and then sent back to the server each time the browser requests a web page from that server. That way, the server collects valuable information about the user.
Cookie dropping: Is an unauthorized technique to generate revenue using affiliate marketing. 
Cost per Click (CPC): The price you pay Google each time someone clicks on your ad.
Cost per Completed View (CPCV): Cost per Completed View (CPCV) The price an advertiser pays every time an online video ad runs through to completion. cost per completed view (CPCV) can be used as a measurement of inventory efficiency, or as a currency for trading video.
Cost-per-thousand Impressions (CPM): The price you pay Google every time your Display ad sees 1,000 impressions.
Cost-per-view (CPV): The price you pay Google every time someone views one of your video ads.
Connected TV (CTV): is a device that connects to—or is embedded in—a television to support video content streaming. Different types of CTVs include Xbox, PlayStation, Roku, Amazon Fire TV, Apple TV, and more.
Custom Audience: A Custom Audience is created from a larger customer list and can be based on behavioural, location or demographic data depending on the response required.

Customer ID: The unique number that’s assigned to your Google AdWords account. It’s a 3-part number that can be found on the top right corner of your AdWords .

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Data: CRM data is data collected by a business to manage the relationship with their customers. It is rich data that can also be used in advertising.

Creative ID: Creative ID stands for the unique code of the creative expression itself. With the help of this identifier, an expression can be identified in reports and analyses. 


Data: Information about consumers that includes, but is not limited to, buying behaviour, personal interests or psychographics. Data can be owned by an advertiser or sourced from external providers.

Data Layer:  A data layer is built to ensure data collection is detailed and consistent across all pages of a site, greatly aiding tag management.
Data Management Platform: A Data Management Platform collects, segments, analyses and distributes user data. It is typically integrated with multiple ad technologies and acts as a single customer view for marketers.
Dayparting: Dayparting is an advertising tactic by which you schedule ads for certain times of day or certain days of the week in order to more effectively target audiences. 
Deal ID: A deal ID is used to identify a programmatic deal which a publisher has sent to a given advertiser, such as a PMP or PG deal.
Deduping: Deduplication, or deduping for short, is the process of removing two or more records of the same conversion in marketing reporting
Demand Partner: An entity such as an advertiser, an agency or a trading desk that buys the inventory of a publisher.
Demand Side Platform (DSP): A technology platform that allows buyers of digital advertising inventory to manage multiple ad exchanges and data exchange accounts through one interface.
Demand Source: Where the demand for an impression is coming from. Typically advertisers.
Demographic targeting: Reaching a certain gender or age (demographic) 
Direct Response (DR) / Performance Campaign: A campaign in which an advertiser is looking for users to undertake a specific action, such as purchasing a product.
Device Targeting: Reaching only certain devices  
Disclosed: this model refers to an arrangement where an agency purchasing media on an advertiser’s behalf does disclose the actual closing/winning bid prices of media purchased, instead providing only a final price, which includes margin and fees.
Display: Display advertising is defined as banner ads (graphic or text), that appear in designated areas of a website.
Display Network: One of the internet’s largest content networks. It contains more than a million websites and apps that can serve your ads
DMP: Data Management Platform. This is a data warehouse: a piece of software that collects and stores information and splits it in a way that is useful for marketers, publishers, etc. It allows them to control their own first-party audience and campaign data and compare it to third-party audience data.
DSP: Demand Side Platform. This is a platform through which the advertiser can buy impressions via the Ad Exchange.
Dynamic Ad Insertion (DAI): The ability to place a particular advertisement within a video stream to target an individual depending on its audience segment requirements. DAI is often a component of addressable advertising.
Duration:Stands for the length of the advertisement. Often the ad has one of the following standard lengths: 6 seconds, 10 seconds, 15 seconds, 20 seconds or 30 seconds. Because video consumption is high on mobile and therefore more volatile, most video ads in the market now have a length of 15 and 20 seconds. 
Dynamic Creative Optimisation: Dynamic creative optimisation (DCO) is an ad technology that creates personalised ads based on data about the viewer at the moment of ad serving. These ads show dynamic content based a person’s website browsing, such as products viewed or added to a shopping cart.


 Effective cost per mille (eCPM): Effective cost per thousand impressions. 

Event tracking: It is important for both publishers and advertisers that it can be traced what a video is doing and what interactions the user has had. All events are registered by the player and forwarded to the ad server. In the ad server, event trackers can be set up to share them with the advertiser. 

Exclusionlist: Compiling a list of websites on which you do not want your ad to be shown 

Facebook custom audience: This is a targeted advertising service that allows businesses to import user e-mail addresses for retargeting on the social media platform. Custom Audiences are an effective way for online businesses to interact with relevant users across multiple channels.

First-Party Cookies: An HTTP cookie is a small piece of data stored on the user’s computer by the web browser while browsing a website. First-Party cookies are cookies that are being placed by the website the user is visiting. 

First Party Data: First party data is company-owned data about consumers that is collected by companies through their interactions with consumers.

First Price Auction: An auction type where if your bid wins, you pay exactly what you bid.

Floor Price: The price that is set by the publisher as the minimum for that impression.

First Touch Attribution: Credits the first channel which generated a click before conversion with being responsible for the conversion taking place (if there are no clicks in the purchase journey, then attribution looks at the first impression). 
Frequency: Definition from Google – “the average number of times a unique user sees your ad in a position of “1” over a given time period”. Google will, by default, continue to show your ad even if a user has seen it before. *Note* an ad is counted as viewable/impressionable when 50% or more of the ad shows for one second or longer for display ads and two seconds or longer for video ads.
Frequency Capping: a feature that lets you control the number of times your ad appears to the same person on the Display Network


Geo-Targeting: See Location Targeting


Impressions (Imps.): a core performance metric that tells you how many times your ad has been shown/ displayed.

Inclusionlist: URLs of (partial) websites on which you want your ad to be shown 

Interaction event tracking: measures the interactions with the player. Think here of the use of the pause or mute button. Also, sound on or off. With interactive videos there are even more tracking possibilities. Think of click to cart or opening different clickable elements in a video.

Interest targeting: Reaching a particular interest of consumer. 

Invalid traffic (IVT): IVT is the percentage of total unfiltered impressions delivered to a non-human endpoint. This may include General IVT (Spiders, Excessive Activity, and/or Data Center Traffic categories) and Sophisticated IVT (Invalid Proxy, Automated Browser, and/or Incongruous Browser Traffic categories).

Invisible and hidden ads: Ads are not placed or are excluded from a browser 

Instream video: Instream video adverts are those videos which are streamed before during or at the end of a video a viewer is already viewing. This means that the audience is already captive and receptive to video material.

In-view: Impressions that are measured as viewable or that can be seen by a consumer. 

(IPTV) Internet Protocol TeleVision: Is a collective name for services and applications that enable TV viewing over the Internet protocol. A wide range of different techniques are used for this, such as (de)compression algorithms for image and sound, multicast routing and p2p protocols.

IP Address: an ID number for every computer or device connected to the internet. You can exclude certain IP addresses from seeing your ads like your co-workers, family, and friends.


Keywords: Words or phrases describing youror service that you choose to trigger your ads. The keywords determine when your ads show. When your keyword matches what people search on Google, your ad will appear. (for more information see: Quality Score, Page Rank, Top of Page Bid Estimate)
Keyword Insertion: a feature that updates your ad text to include one of your keywords that matches a customer’s search terms. This requires the use of a simple code line in your ad text. If you are selling all types of hats and are bidding on “wool hats” “tweed hats” and “women’s hats” you can enter {KeyWord: hats} into your ad text. The text will show hats unless the searcher used one of your keywords (wool hats, tweed hats, or women’s hats). For more on how to use these, check this tutorial out. There are 3 major benefits:
Keyword Matching Options: Also known as Keyword Match Types, these are the different setting for each keyword to control how closely the search term must be to the keyword in order to trigger your ad.
Keyword Mining: the gathering of keywords for your business and ads. You can mine keywords using the Keyword Planner or Search Terms Report.

KPI: Key Performance Indicator. Used as a measure of a campaigns success. KPI – Key Performance Indicator. Used as a measure of a campaigns success. 


Last Touch Attribution – Credits the final channel which generated a click before conversion with being responsible for the conversion taking place (if there are no clicks in the purchase journey, then attribution looks at the last impression).

Lazy loading: Lazy loading is the practice of delaying load or initialization of resources or objects until they’re actually needed to improve performance and save system resources.

Linear Attribution: Attribution is credited equally between all touch points in the journey.
Location Targeting: Targeting relevant messages based on a user’s location, driven largely by mobile location services.

Location Extensions: an addition to your ad that shows your business’ address. This is essential for businesses trying to drive in-store traffic. Check out this 1-minute tutorial video to setting up a location extension.

Location Targeting: target audiences based on where they are in the world. You can also choose areas to avoid.
Location Groups: Places of interest: select the places of interest within a certain area (I.e. airports in the UK or Universities in the UK.

Lookalike targeting: A programmatic targeting tactic which looks to reach users who have a similar profile to other users, such as those who have previously bought a product. 

Loyalty: A stage in the purchase funnel where users have previously bought a product from a brand.



Malware: Is a compound of “malicious” and “software,” or malicious software. It is a piece of code written with the purpose of stealing, damaging or disrupting data, networks or hosts. 

Manual Bidding: Select the maximum cost-per-click bid amount for your ad group’s default bid. When you identify certain placements, keywords, audiences, and times of day that have the best returns, you can use manual bidding to increase returns of investment
Marketing automation: This is software that is a part of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) which aims to ease a marketers’ task by planning, managing, coordinating and measuring all the digital marketing campaigns. This way, marketing automation helps the marketers and business owners in automating their marketing processes and get the maximum benefits.

Mid-roll:  een of meer advertenties die tijdens de videocontent worden getoond. De content wordt gepauzeerd tijdens de vertoning van de advertentie(s) en hervat na het afspelen ervan.3.Post-roll: een advertentie die wordt afgespeeld aan het einde van de videocontent. 

MPU: (Mid-page Unit), also sometimes called a medium rectangle, is a banner ad that is 300 pixels wide and 250 pixels high



nondisclosed: This model refers to an arrangement where an agency purchasing media on an advertiser’s behalf does not disclose the actual closing/winning bid prices of media purchased, instead providing only a final price, which includes margin and fees.



Online video ad: This is a commercial audiovisual expression that can be shown before, during and after video content (Instream) or next to other content (Outstream). Nowadays you can also see more and more video ads in banners. 

Open Marketplace (OMP): An ad marketplace which contains inventory from multiple publishers where all buyers have opportunities to bid programmatically (real-time bidding) to purchase ad impressions via an auction through a Demand Side Platform (DSP).

Out-of-view: impressions that are measured as non-viewable or that cannot be seen by a consumer. 

Outstream video: An ‘outstream’ video ad unit, also commonly referred to as ‘in-read’ or ‘native video’, is a new video advertising unit that autoplays in a large format player whenever a user navigates to it within text content (typically an article), even if the publisher doesn’t have their own video content.
OTT: Stands for “Over The Top” and refers to any streaming service that delivers content over the Internet. The service is delivered “over the top” of another platform, hence the name.



PII – Personal Identifiable Information Data such as an email address or name. 

Pixel: A tracking or re-targeting pixel is a small piece of code contained in a single clear pixel on a website or specific ad unit that drops a cookie on the user’s browser. That cookie is used for tracking purposes
Programmatic Buying: This is a general term that only covers the side of the advertiser who buys the media through an automated system.

Player: The players play video content on the website of the publisher concerned. In addition, the player also plays the video advertisement. There are various player variants, but the market standard is that the player is VAST 3.0-or 4.0-and VPAID-compliant. The player can also function as a content management platform, combining several editorial functionalities. The player therefore has an important position in the online video story for a publisher.  

Pop-under: This is the same as the pop-up, but instead of seeing the ad appear on top of the web page, it appears below the web page.  

Preferred deals: These are transactions where the price is fixed in advance, but the volume purchase is flexible. In other words, the buyer can ignore an impression. Again, logically, a one-to-one relationship is needed for this. 

Pre-roll:An ad (of typically 15 to 30 seconds) that plays in the player, preceding the video content.

Private auctions: This model is similar to the open market in terms of flexibility with regard to price and volume, but is only made available to a set of buyers that are limited in advance by the broadcasters and publishers. It requires a one-to-one relationship. 

Private Marketplace (PMP):  An ad marketplace which utilise invitation only auctions to buy ad impressions between one publisher and a select few advertisers.

Programmatic Advertising: Programmatic is the use of data & technology to enable the buying & selling of advertising.

Programmatic guaranteed : In terms of transaction, programmatic guaranteed is similar to a direct deal, but with the benefits of programmatic advertising. In fact, a programmatic guaranteed deal of video is also done through a fixed price and volume agreement between the demand side and the supply side, with the transaction being executed by an SSP and a DSP. The programmatic benefits, adding audience data and applying frequency management on the buying side and the management benefits on the selling side make this a more efficient solution. 

Programmatic TV: This term refers to the advanced TV inventory that can be bought programmatically such as connected TV, VOD and linear addressable TV. It is often used interchangeably with advanced TV however some advanced TV inventory can be bought non-programmatically through networks or providers directly.

Progression event tracking: This is all the event tracking fired by the player during playback of the video. It registers, among other things, which quarters of the video have been shown and whether it has been played completely. 

Publisher:  A website owner.

Purchase Funnel: Used to visualise or map out where certain users are in the customer lifecycle for a given advertiser/product. This can then inform targeting strategies to reach different users.



Quartile: Measures the effectiveness of video ads by determining what percentage of a given video was viewed by users on average. Each viewing is reported in increments of 25% and averaged across users. For example, if five users viewed a video up to 50%, 50%, 50%, 75% and 75%, the average would appear as 60%.


Re-targeting: This is reaching an audience that was reached before with a previous message.
Real-time Bidding (RTB): The buying of media space per impression in real time. The impression is sold once it is shown to the surfer.

Real Time Bidding:  Real time bidding, it enables the buying and selling of digital advertising through auctions which take place in a time-frame of milliseconds.

Return on Ad Spend (ROAS):  A metric used to calculate the return that an advertiser gets in terms of revenue from sales vs their adspend. 

Run of Network (RON):  Ads that are delivered across multiple different websites within a network.



Second Price Auction: An auction type where if your bid wins, you pay $0.01 above the second highest bid in the auction.
Second Party Data: Second Party Data is basically first party data that advertisers have purchased directly from the source.
Streaming: The delivery of video or audio content over the internet, stored in bits which enables it to be played in real time and without viewers having to wait for all the data to download.

SSP: Supply Side Platform. This is the platform that is used by the publishers and which makes it possible for them to sell online media automatically. This is connected to either DSPs or Ad Exchanges and makes sure that the publisher always receives the highest turnover.

Subscription Video on Demand (SVoD): refers to video streaming services that require users’ subscriptions for authorized access to content.



Tag / Pixel: A tag is a block of code generated by an ad technology to track user behavior. It is also known as a pixel as early version of tags were built using a 1×1 image.

Tag Variable: A variable is a part of a tag that collects more specific data from a page such as a product id or price.
Third-Party Cookies: An HTTP cookie is a small piece of data stored on the user’s computer by the web browser while browsing a website. Third-Party cookies are cookies that are being placed by a website other than the one the user is visiting. 

Third Party Data: Information about consumer behaviour that is collected and aggregated by third party providers, such as Experian, Quantium or Acxiom, that is available to any party to buy.

Time Decay Attribution: Takes into account the amount of time elapsed since a user was exposed to an impression or click and the time when they converted. The closer a touch point to the point of sale, the more influence it is considered to have on the conversion. 

Trafficking: Trafficking is the process of creating tracking tags and uploading creative assets to an adserver, allowing for the measurement of all campaign activity in one central location.
Transparency and Consent Framework (TCF): The IAB Europe Transparency and Consent Framework (TCF) is the global cross-industry effort to help publishers, technology vendors, agencies and advertisers meet the transparency and user choice requirements under the General Data Protection Regulation.

Transactional video on demand (TVOD):  is a distribution method by which customers pay for each piece of video-on-demand content.


 Unmeasured: sometimes impressions cannot be measured due to a lack of information. 

User Identifier (UID): The mechanism used to recognise a user across the internet. 
View Through Rate (VTR): is the number of completed views of a skippable ad over the number of initial impressions.
Viewability: Is an online advertising metric that aims to determine whether an ad impression had the opportunity to be seen or not. It doesn’t guarantee that an ad was seen by a consumer in the same way you cannot guarantee someone turns to the page showing your advert in a magazine or newspaper.



Waterfall: The waterfall is a process used by a publisher to sell their inventory. This process prioritises the way in which ad space is sold. The higher the demand source in the waterfall, the higher its priority

Whitelist: This is a list of approved items, terms or URLs to be used when an advertising campaign is delivered



Sources: Wikipedia, Google, Adhawk, and fma Digital.